The term affordance was created by psychologist James J. Gibson. He originally coined the term in his 1966 book, The Senses Considered as Perceptual Systems, and it occurs in many of his earlier essays (e.g.). However, his best-known definition is taken from his seminal 1979 book, The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception:
The affordances of the environment are what it offers the animal, what it provides or furnishes, either for good or ill. The verb to afford is found in the dictionary, the noun affordance is not. I have made it up. I mean by it something that refers to both the environment and the animal in a way that no existing term does. It implies the complementarity of the animal and the environment.
Though additional meanings have developed, the original definition in psychology includes all transactions that are possible between an individual and their environment. When the concept was applied to design, it started also referring to only those physical action possibilities of which one is aware.
The word is used in a variety of fields: perceptual psychology, cognitive psychology, environmental psychology, industrial design, human–computer interaction (HCI), interaction design, communication studies, instructional design, science, technology and society (STS), and artificial intelligence.
Efford (anciently Eppeford, Elforde, etc.) is an historic manor formerly in the parish of Egg Buckland, Devon, England. Today it has been absorbed by large, mostly post-World War II, eastern suburb of the city of Plymouth. It stands on high ground above the Laira estuary of the River Plym and provides views over long distances: to the north across Dartmoor, to the east and south-east across the South Hams. It consists predominantly of local authority and housing association properties. Before this land was built upon it was known as 'The Wilds of Efford', and was largely unspoilt countryside and marsh land. That a deer park may have been attached to the manor is suggested by the survival of the street name "Deer Park Drive".
To incur, stand, or bear without serious detriment, as an act which might under other circumstances be injurious;—with an auxiliary, as can, could, might, etc.; to be able or rich enough.
"I think we can afford the extra hour it will take."
"We can only afford to buy a small car at the moment."
To offer, provide, or supply, as in selling, granting, expending, with profit, or without loss or too great injury.
"A affords his goods cheaper than B."
"A man can afford a sum yearly in charity."
To give forth; to supply, yield, or produce as the natural result, fruit, or issue.
"Grapes afford wine."
"Olives afford oil."
"The earth affords fruit."
"The sea affords an abundant supply of fish."
To give, grant, or confer, with a remoter reference to its being the natural result; to provide; to furnish.
"A good life affords consolation in old age."
To give forth; to supply, yield, or produce as the natural result, fruit, or issue; as, grapes afford wine; olives afford oil; the earth affords fruit; the sea affords an abundant supply of fish.
To give, grant, or confer, with a remoter reference to its being the natural result; to provide; to furnish; as, a good life affords consolation in old age.
To offer, provide, or supply, as in selling, granting, expending, with profit, or without loss or too great injury; as, A affords his goods cheaper than B; a man can afford a sum yearly in charity.
To incur, stand, or bear without serious detriment, as an act which might under other circumstances be injurious; - with an auxiliary, as can, could, might, etc.; to be able or rich enough.
be able to spare or give up;
"I can't afford to spend two hours with this person"
be the cause or source of;
"He gave me a lot of trouble"
"Our meeting afforded much interesting information"
have the financial means to do something or buy something;
"We can't afford to send our children to college"
"Can you afford this car?"
afford access to;
"the door opens to the patio"
"The French doors give onto a terrace"