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Christian Bible vs. Jewish Bible — What's the Difference?

Edited by Tayyaba Rehman — By Fiza Rafique — Published on January 16, 2024
Christian Bible includes the Old and New Testaments, while the Jewish Bible (Tanakh) contains only the Old Testament.
Christian Bible vs. Jewish Bible — What's the Difference?

Difference Between Christian Bible and Jewish Bible


Key Differences

The Christian Bible comprises both the Old and New Testaments, encompassing the teachings, stories, and prophecies concerning both the history of the Jewish people and the life of Jesus Christ. The Jewish Bible, also known as the Tanakh or Hebrew Bible, consists solely of the Old Testament, focusing on the covenant between God and the Israelites.
The Christian Bible's New Testament introduces Jesus Christ, his teachings, the apostles' work, and the foundational beliefs of Christianity. On the other hand, the Jewish Bible does not acknowledge the New Testament and remains centered on the historical, legal, and prophetic writings of the Jewish faith.
The Christian Bible often serves as a religious guide for Christians worldwide, teaching them the significance of Christ's sacrifice and the promise of salvation. In contrast, the Jewish Bible remains a central text for Jewish theology, history, and law, maintaining the spiritual heritage and traditions of the Jewish people.

Comparison Chart


Contains Old and New Testaments
Contains only the Old Testament (Tanakh)

Central Figures

Jesus Christ, apostles, prophets
Prophets, kings, patriarchs


Originally in Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek
Primarily in Hebrew, with some parts in Aramaic

Religious Significance

Central to Christianity, teachings of Jesus Christ
Central to Judaism, teachings of Torah and prophets

Number of Books

Varies (66 in Protestant, more in Catholic & Orthodox)
24 books

Compare with Definitions

Christian Bible

The foundational scripture for Christians, detailing the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
Followers study the Christian Bible to understand the teachings of Jesus.

Jewish Bible

A collection of 24 books written primarily in Hebrew.
The Jewish Bible provides guidance on ethics, law, and spirituality.

Christian Bible

The central religious text for Christianity, used for worship, guidance, and study.
The Christian Bible has been translated into numerous languages worldwide.

Jewish Bible

Also known as the Tanakh, it's the canonical collection of Jewish texts.
The Jewish Bible holds the sacred stories of the Jewish people's history and relationship with God.

Christian Bible

A collection of sacred texts in Christianity, including the Old and New Testaments.
The Christian Bible is revered by billions as the word of God.

Jewish Bible

An ancient record of God's interactions with the Jewish patriarchs, prophets, and kings.
The stories in the Jewish Bible inspire faith and devotion among its readers.

Christian Bible

A two-part scripture, with the Old Testament focusing on Jewish history and the New Testament on Christ's ministry.
The Christian Bible offers insights into both ancient Jewish traditions and Christian beliefs.

Jewish Bible

The foundational scripture that does not include the New Testament found in Christianity.
The Jewish Bible focuses on God's covenant with the Israelites and their history.

Christian Bible

A compilation of books that includes historical, poetic, prophetic, and apostolic writings.
The Christian Bible contains a rich tapestry of stories and lessons.

Jewish Bible

The central religious document of Judaism, consisting of the Torah, Prophets, and Writings.
Scholars often study the Jewish Bible to understand Jewish theology and law.

Common Curiosities

What is the Christian Bible?

The Christian Bible is a collection of sacred texts in Christianity, including the Old and New Testaments.

Who is the central figure in the Christian Bible's New Testament?

The central figure is Jesus Christ.

How many books are in the Christian Bible?

The number varies; the Protestant Christian Bible has 66 books, while the Catholic and Orthodox versions have more.

Is the Christian Bible's Old Testament different from the Jewish Bible?

They are largely the same, but the order and division of some books might differ.

What are the main sections of the Jewish Bible?

The Jewish Bible is divided into the Torah (Law), Nevi'im (Prophets), and Ketuvim (Writings).

Does the Jewish Bible contain the New Testament?

No, the Jewish Bible only contains what Christians refer to as the Old Testament.

How many books are in the Jewish Bible?

The Jewish Bible consists of 24 books.

Are the teachings in the Christian Bible and Jewish Bible vastly different?

The Old Testament teachings are largely similar; the primary difference lies in the New Testament, exclusive to the Christian Bible.

Can the Jewish Bible be referred to as the Old Testament?

While similar, it's more accurate to refer to it as the Tanakh or Hebrew Bible in a Jewish context.

Is the Christian Bible used in Jewish worship?

No, Jewish worship uses the Jewish Bible, not the Christian New Testament.

What is the Jewish Bible?

The Jewish Bible, also known as the Tanakh, is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, equivalent to the Old Testament in Christianity.

Why is the New Testament significant for the Christian Bible but not the Jewish Bible?

The New Testament introduces the life and teachings of Jesus Christ, foundational for Christianity but not recognized in Judaism.

How old are the texts in the Christian Bible and Jewish Bible?

Both contain ancient texts, some dating back over 2,500 years.

What languages were used to write the Christian Bible?

The Christian Bible was originally written in Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek.

How have the Christian Bible and Jewish Bible impacted world history?

Both have deeply influenced cultures, legal systems, art, literature, and countless lives across millennia.

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Author Spotlight

Written by
Fiza Rafique
Fiza Rafique is a skilled content writer at, where she meticulously refines and enhances written pieces. Drawing from her vast editorial expertise, Fiza ensures clarity, accuracy, and precision in every article. Passionate about language, she continually seeks to elevate the quality of content for readers worldwide.
Tayyaba Rehman is a distinguished writer, currently serving as a primary contributor to As a researcher in semantics and etymology, Tayyaba's passion for the complexity of languages and their distinctions has found a perfect home on the platform. Tayyaba delves into the intricacies of language, distinguishing between commonly confused words and phrases, thereby providing clarity for readers worldwide.

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