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Russia vs. Prussia — What's the Difference?

By Tayyaba Rehman — Updated on November 6, 2023
Russia vs. Prussia — What's the Difference?

Difference Between Russia and Prussia


Key Differences

Russia is a current sovereign nation known for its vast territory across eastern Europe and northern Asia. Prussia, in contrast, was a historic state that originated in the southeastern Baltic region, dissolved after World War II, and is now part of various European countries.
While Russia has played a continuous and major role in global affairs since its inception, Prussia's influence peaked during the 18th and 19th centuries when it was a dominant German kingdom before becoming part of Germany in 1871. Both have rich histories of monarchy and empire, but Russia maintains its monarchy longer.
The Russian language is Slavic and is the official language of Russia, a cornerstone of its national identity. Prussian, however, was a Baltic language spoken by the old Prussians; German became the dominant language in Prussia as it became more Germanized through time.
Russia, with its iconic Red Square and Kremlin, remains a key political power into the modern era. In contrast, Prussia's legacy is reflected in modern Germany's institutions, particularly in military and bureaucratic efficiency.
The economy of Russia today is characterized by its significant natural resources, especially oil and gas. Prussia was historically known for its military might and its role in the industrialization and unification of Germany, shaping European political landscapes.

Comparison Chart

Current Status

A sovereign nation with significant global influence.
A historical kingdom that was part of Germany, now dissolved.


Russian, a Slavic language.
Initially Prussian, later German after Germanization.


Berlin (when it became the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia).

Historical Role

Continuously important in global affairs.
Influential in European affairs, particularly in the 18th and 19th centuries.


Modern economy powered by natural resources.
Historical economy known for military might and industrialization.

Compare with Definitions


The largest country in the world by land area.
The vast landscapes of Russia are unmatched in their diversity.


Once a major kingdom within the German Empire.
Prussia was known for its disciplined military and strong governance.


A permanent member of the United Nations Security Council.
Russia plays a crucial role in international diplomacy.


Renowned for its efficient bureaucracy and military innovations.
Prussian military tactics were studied worldwide.


Known for its cold climate, especially in Siberia.
The Siberian winters in Russia are notorious for their severity.


A catalyst for the unification of Germany in the 19th century.
Prussia led the drive for German unification under Bismarck's leadership.


Russia (Russian: Россия, Rossiya, Russian pronunciation: [rɐˈsʲijə]), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is the largest country in the world, covering over 17 million square kilometres (6.6×10^6 sq mi), and encompassing more than one-eighth of Earth's inhabited land area.


Dissolved after World War II and its territory divided.
The legacy of Prussia is still evident in modern European borders.


A country in northern Asia and eastern Europe; population 143,500,000 (estimated 2015); official language, Russian; capital, Moscow.


Originally a Baltic region, later dominated by German culture.
The influence of Prussian culture can still be seen in parts of Germany today.


Renowned for its significant contributions to arts and science.
Russia has produced some of the world's most famous artists and scientists.


Prussia was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia on the southeast coast of the Baltic Sea. It was de facto dissolved by an emergency decree transferring powers of the Prussian government to German Chancellor Franz von Papen in 1932 and de jure by an Allied decree in 1947.


A country of Europe and Asia.


A former kingdom of Germany. Originally a small country on the south-eastern shores of the Baltic, under Frederick the Great it became a major European power covering much of modern north-eastern Germany and Poland. After the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–1 it became the centre of Bismarck's new German Empire, but following Germany's defeat in the First World War the Prussian monarchy was abolished.


A former communist country in eastern Europe and northern Asia; established in 1922; included Russia and 14 other soviet socialist republics (Ukraine and Byelorussia an others); officially dissolved 31 December 1991


A former kingdom in north-central Europe including present-day northern Germany and northern Poland;
In the 19th century Prussia led the economic and political unification of the German states


Formerly the largest Soviet Socialist Republic in the USSR occupying eastern Europe and northern Asia


A former empire in eastern Europe and northern Asia created in the 14th century with Moscow as the capital; powerful in 17-18th centuries under Peter the Great and Catherine the Great when Saint Petersburg was the capital; overthrown by revolution in 1917


A federation in northeastern Europe and northern Asia; formerly Soviet Russia; since 1991 an independent state


The main successor state of the Soviet Union.
Russia inherited the bulk of the Soviet Union's territory and international obligations.

Common Curiosities

Where is Russia located?

Russia spans Eastern Europe and Northern Asia.

What was the predominant language of Prussia?

German became the predominant language of Prussia by the 18th century.

What is Russia known for?

Russia is known for its vast geography, rich cultural heritage, and significant influence in global politics.

What language is spoken in Russia?

The official language of Russia is Russian.

What is the capital of Russia?

The capital of Russia is Moscow.

What role does Russia play in the UN?

Russia is a permanent member of the UN Security Council.

Was Prussia part of the Holy Roman Empire?

Yes, Prussia was part of the Holy Roman Empire before becoming a kingdom.

Did Prussia have a significant military?

Yes, Prussia was renowned for its powerful and efficient military.

Is Prussia still a country?

No, Prussia ceased to exist as a country after World War II.

Does Russia have a royal family?

Russia no longer has a ruling royal family; the monarchy was abolished in 1917.

What was Prussia's government structure?

Prussia was a monarchy and later became a state within Germany.

Can I visit Prussia today?

You can visit regions that were once part of Prussia, but it no longer exists as a separate entity.

What contributions did Prussia make to European history?

Prussia played a key role in the military, political, and social unification of Germany.

What are some historical landmarks of Prussia?

Notable landmarks include the palaces in Berlin and Potsdam, and the Kaliningrad Cathedral.

How has Russia influenced global culture?

Russia has a profound influence on global culture through its literature, music, and ballet.

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Author Spotlight

Written by
Tayyaba Rehman
Tayyaba Rehman is a distinguished writer, currently serving as a primary contributor to As a researcher in semantics and etymology, Tayyaba's passion for the complexity of languages and their distinctions has found a perfect home on the platform. Tayyaba delves into the intricacies of language, distinguishing between commonly confused words and phrases, thereby providing clarity for readers worldwide.

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