Phenomena vs. Phenomenon - What's the difference?

Phenomena

A phenomenon (Greek: φαινόμενον, phainómenon, from the verb phainein, to show, shine, appear, to be manifest or manifest itself, plural phenomena) is any thing which manifests itself. Phenomena are often, but not always, understood as "things that appear" or "experiences" for a sentient being, or in principle may be so. The term came into its modern philosophical usage through Immanuel Kant, who contrasted it with the noumenon. In contrast to a phenomenon, a noumenon cannot be directly observed. Kant was heavily influenced by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz in this part of his philosophy, in which phenomenon and noumenon serve as interrelated technical terms. Far predating this, the ancient Greek Pyrrhonist philosopher Sextus Empiricus also used phenomenon and noumenon as interrelated technical terms.

Phenomenon

A phenomenon (Greek: φαινόμενον, phainómenon, from the verb phainein, to show, shine, appear, to be manifest or manifest itself, plural phenomena) is any thing which manifests itself. Phenomena are often, but not always, understood as "things that appear" or "experiences" for a sentient being, or in principle may be so. The term came into its modern philosophical usage through Immanuel Kant, who contrasted it with the noumenon. In contrast to a phenomenon, a noumenon cannot be directly observed. Kant was heavily influenced by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz in this part of his philosophy, in which phenomenon and noumenon serve as interrelated technical terms. Far predating this, the ancient Greek Pyrrhonist philosopher Sextus Empiricus also used phenomenon and noumenon as interrelated technical terms.

Phenomena vs. Phenomenon

Phenomena

Phenomenon

Table of contents

1. Alternative forms
          4.1. Usage notes
          4.2. Synonyms
          4.3. Antonyms
          4.4. Further reading

Phenomena

1. Alternative forms

  • phænomena (archaic)
  • phœnomena (archaic, erroneous)

2. Pronunciation

  • (UK) IPA(key): /fɪˈnɒmənə/
  • (US) IPA(key): /fɪˈnɑmənə/

3. Noun

phenomena pl

  1. plural form of phenomenon.

3.1. Usage notes

  • May occasionally be used as a singular. This is generally considered an error. Compare criteria.

Phenomenon

1. Alternative forms

  • phaenomenon, phænomenon (archaic)
  • phainomenon (archaic, academic, or technical)
  • phœnomenon (hypercorrect, obsolete)

2. Etymology

From Late Latin phaenomenon (appearance), from Ancient Greek φαινόμενον (phainómenon, thing appearing to view), neuter present passive participle of φαίνω (phaínō, I show).

3. Pronunciation

  • (UK) IPA(key): /fɪˈnɒmənɒn/, /fɪˈnɒmənən/
  • (US) IPA(key): /fɪˈnɑmənɑn/, /fɪˈnɑmənən/

4. Noun

phenomenon (plural phenomena)

  1. A thing or being, event or process, perceptible through senses; or a fact or occurrence thereof.
    • 1900, Andrew Lang, The Making of Religion, ch. 1:
      The Indians, making a hasty inference from a trivial phenomenon, arrived unawares at a probably correct conclusion.
    • 2007, "Ask the Experts: Hurricanes," USA Today, 7 Nov. (retrieved 16 Jan. 2009):
      Hurricanes are a meteorological phenomenon.
  2. (extension) A knowable thing or event (eg by inference, especially in science).
    • An electromagnetic phenomenon.
  3. (metonymy) A kind or type of phenomenon (sense 1 or 2).
    • A volcanic eruption is an impressive phenomenon.
  4. Appearance; a perceptible aspect of something that is mutable.
    • 1662, Thomas Salusbury (translator), Galileo's Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief Systems of the World, First Day:
      I verily believe that in the Moon there are no rains, for if Clouds should gather in any part thereof, as they do about the Earth, they would thereupon hide from our sight some of those things, which we with the Telescope behold in the Moon, and in a word, would some way or other change its Phœnomenon.
  5. A fact or event considered very unusual, curious, or astonishing by those who witness it.
    • 1816, Sir Walter Scott, The Antiquary—Volume I, ch. 18:
      The phenomenon of a huge blazing fire, upon the opposite bank of the glen, again presented itself to the eye of the watchman. . . . He resolved to examine more nearly the object of his wonder.
  6. A wonderful or very remarkable person or thing.
    • 1839, Charles Dickens, Nicholas Nickleby, ch. 23:
      "This, sir," said Mr Vincent Crummles, bringing the maiden forward, "this is the infant phenomenon—Miss Ninetta Crummles."
    • 1888, Rudyard Kipling, "The Phantom Rickshaw":
      But, all the same, you're a phenomenon, and as queer a phenomenon as you are a blackguard.
  7. (philosophy, chiefly Kantian idealism) An experienced object whose constitution reflects the order and conceptual structure imposed upon it by the human mind (especially by the powers of perception and understanding).
    • 1900, S. Tolver Preston, "Comparison of Some Views of Spencer and Kant," Mind, vol. 9, no. 34, p. 234:
      Every "phenomenon" must be, at any rate, partly subjective or dependent on the subject.
    • 1912, Roy Wood Sellars, "Is There a Cognitive Relation?" The Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods, vol. 9, no. 9, p. 232:
      The Kantian phenomenon is the real as we are compelled to think it.

4.1. Usage notes

  • The universal, common, modern spelling of this term is phenomenon. Of the alternative forms listed above, phaenomenon, phænomenon, and phainomenon are etymologically consistent, retaining the αι diphthong from its Ancient Greek etymon φαινόμενον (phainómenon); in the case of the first two, it is in the Romanised form of the Latin ae diphthong, whereas in the latter it is a direct transcription of the original Ancient Greek. The form spelt with œ has no etymological basis. All those alternative forms are pronounced identically with phenomenon and are archaic, except for phainomenon, which sees some technical use in academia and is pronounced with an initial ([faɪ],).
  • By far the most common and universally accepted plural form is the classical phenomena; the Anglicised phenomenons is also sometimes used. The plural form phenomena is frequently misused in the singular. Arising from this misuse, the double plurals phenomenas and phenomenae, as well as a form employing the greengrocer’s apostrophe — phenomena’s — are seen in non-standard use.

4.2. Synonyms

  • (observable fact or occurrence): event
  • (unusual, curious, or astonishing fact or event): marvel, miracle, oddity, wonder, legend
  • (wonderful person or thing): marvel, miracle, phenom, prodigy, wonder, legend

4.3. Antonyms

  • (philosophy: experienced object structured by the mind): noumenon, thing-in-itself

4.4. Further reading

  • phenomenon in Webster’s Revised Unabridged Dictionary, G. & C. Merriam, 1913
  • phenomenon in The Century Dictionary, The Century Co., New York, 1911
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