VS.

By vs. With

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Bypreposition

Near or next to.

‘The mailbox is by the bus stop.’;

Withpreposition

Against.

‘He picked a fight with the class bully.’;

Bypreposition

At some time before (the given time), or before the end of a given time interval.

‘Be back by ten o'clock!’; ‘We will send it by the first week of July.’;

Withpreposition

In the company of; alongside, close to; near to.

‘He went with his friends.’;

Bypreposition

Indicates the actor in a clause with its verb in the passive voice: Through the action or presence of.

‘The matter was decided by the chairman.’; ‘The boat was swamped by the water.’; ‘He was protected by his body armour.’;

Withpreposition

In addition to; as an accessory to.

‘She owns a motorcycle with a sidecar.’;

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Bypreposition

Indicates the creator of a work: Existing through the authorship etc. of.

‘There are many well-known plays by William Shakespeare’;

Withpreposition

Used to indicate simultaneous happening, or immediate succession or consequence.

Bypreposition

Indicates the cause of a condition or event: Through the action of, caused by, responsibility for; by dint of.

Withpreposition

In support of.

‘We are with you all the way.’;

Bypreposition

Indicates a means: Involving/using the means of.

‘I avoided the guards by moving only when they weren't looking.’;

Withpreposition

(obsolete) To denote the accomplishment of cause, means, instrument, etc; – sometimes equivalent to by.

‘slain with robbers’;

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Bypreposition

Indicates a source of light used as illumination.

‘The electricity was cut off, so we had to read by candlelight.’;

Withpreposition

Using as an instrument; by means of.

‘cut with a knife’;

Bypreposition

Indicates an authority, rule, or permission followed.

‘I sorted the items by category.’; ‘By the power vested in me, I now pronounce you man and wife.’;

Withpreposition

(obsolete) Using as nourishment; more recently replaced by on.

Bypreposition

Indicates the amount of some progression: With a change of.

‘Our stock is up by ten percent.’;

Withpreposition

Having, owning.

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Bypreposition

In the formulae X by X and by Xs, indicates a steady progression, one X after another.

‘We went through the book page by page.’; ‘We crawled forward by inches.’;

Withadverb

Along, together with others, in a group, etc.

‘Do you want to come with?’;

Bypreposition

Indicates a referenced source: According to.

‘He cheated by his own admission.’;

Withnoun

See Withe.

Bypreposition

Indicates an oath: With the authority of.

‘By Jove! I think she's got it!’; ‘By all that is holy, I'll put an end to this.’;

Withpreposition

With denotes or expresses some situation or relation of nearness, proximity, association, connection, or the like.

Bypreposition

Used to separate dimensions when describing the size of something.

‘It is easy to invert a 2-by-2 matrix.’; ‘The room was about 4 foot by 6 foot.’; ‘The bricks used to build the wall measured 10 by 20 by 30 cm.’;

Withpreposition

To denote a close or direct relation of opposition or hostility; - equivalent to against.

‘Thy servant will . . . fight with this Philistine.’;

Bypreposition

(horse breeding) Designates a horse's male parent (sire); cf. out of.

‘She's a lovely little filly, by Big Lad, out of Damsel in Distress.’;

Withpreposition

To denote association in respect of situation or environment; hence, among; in the company of.

‘I will buy with you, talk with you, walk with you, and so following; but I will not eat with you, drink with you, nor pray with you.’; ‘Pity your own, or pity our estate,Nor twist our fortunes with your sinking fate.’; ‘See where on earth the flowery glories lie;With her they flourished, and with her they die.’; ‘There is no living with thee nor without thee.’; ‘Such arguments had invincible force with those pagan philosophers.’;

Byadverb

Along a path which runs by the speaker.

‘I watched as it passed by.’;

Withpreposition

To denote a connection of friendship, support, alliance, assistance, countenance, etc.; hence, on the side of.

‘Fear not, for I am with thee, and will bless thee.’;

Byadverb

In the vicinity, near.

‘There was a shepherd close by.’; ‘The shop is hard by the High Street.’;

Withpreposition

To denote the accomplishment of cause, means, instrument, etc; - sometimes equivalent to by.

‘That with these fowls I be all to-rent.’; ‘Thou wilt be like a lover presently,And tire the hearer with a book of words.’; ‘[He] entertained a coffeehouse with the following narrative.’; ‘With receiving your friends within and amusing them without, you lead a good, pleasant, bustling life of it.’;

Byadverb

To or at a place, as a residence or place of business.

‘I'll stop by on my way home from work.’; ‘We're right near the lifeguard station. Come by before you leave.’;

Withpreposition

To denote association in thought, as for comparison or contrast.

‘Can blazing carbuncles with her compare.’;

Byadverb

Aside, away.

‘The women spent much time after harvest putting jams by for winter and spring.’;

Withpreposition

To denote simultaneous happening, or immediate succession or consequence.

‘With that she told me . . . that she would hide no truth from me.’; ‘With her they flourished, and with her they die.’; ‘With this he pointed to his face.’;

Byadjective

Out of the way, subsidiary.

Withpreposition

To denote having as a possession or an appendage; as, the firmament with its stars; a bride with a large fortune.

Bynoun

(card games) A pass

Withpreposition

accompanied by (another person or thing)

‘a nice steak with a bottle of red wine’;

Byinterjection

alternative spelling of bye

Withpreposition

having or possessing (something)

‘a flower-sprigged blouse with a white collar’;

Bypreposition

In the neighborhood of; near or next to; not far from; close to; along with; as, come and sit by me.

‘By foundation or by shady rivuletHe sought them both.’;

Withpreposition

wearing or carrying

‘a small man with thick glasses’;

Bypreposition

On; along; in traversing. Compare 5.

‘Long labors both by sea and land he bore.’; ‘By land, by water, they renew the charge.’;

Withpreposition

indicating the instrument used to perform an action

‘cut the fish with a knife’; ‘treatment with acid before analysis’;

Bypreposition

Near to, while passing; hence, from one to the other side of; past; as, to go by a church.

Withpreposition

indicating the material used for a purpose

‘fill the bowl with water’;

Bypreposition

Used in specifying adjacent dimensions; as, a cabin twenty feet by forty.

Withpreposition

in opposition to

‘a row broke out with another man’;

Bypreposition

Against.

Withpreposition

indicating the manner or attitude in which a person does something

‘the people shouted with pleasure’;

Bypreposition

With, as means, way, process, etc.; through means of; with aid of; through; through the act or agency of; as, a city is destroyed by fire; profit is made by commerce; to take by force.

Withpreposition

indicating responsibility

‘leave it with me’;

Byadverb

Near; in the neighborhood; present; as, there was no person by at the time.

Withpreposition

in relation to

‘my father will be angry with me’;

Byadverb

Passing near; going past; past; beyond; as, the procession has gone by; a bird flew by.

Withpreposition

affected by (a particular fact or condition)

‘he's in bed with the flu’;

Byadverb

Aside; as, to lay by; to put by.

Withpreposition

indicating the cause of (a condition)

‘he was trembling with fear’;

Byadjective

Out of the common path; aside; - used in composition, giving the meaning of something aside, secondary, or incidental, or collateral matter, a thing private or avoiding notice; as, by-line, by-place, by-play, by-street. It was formerly more freely used in composition than it is now; as, by-business, by-concernment, by-design, by-interest, etc.

Withpreposition

because of (something) and as it happens

‘wisdom comes with age’;

Byadverb

so as to pass a given point;

‘every hour a train goes past’;

Withpreposition

employed by

‘she's with the Inland Revenue now’;

Byadverb

in reserve; not for immediate use;

‘started setting aside money to buy a car’; ‘put something by for her old age’; ‘has a nestegg tucked away for a rainy day’;

Withpreposition

using the services of

‘I bank with the TSB’;

Bypreposition

identifying the agent performing an action.

Withpreposition

in the same direction as

‘marine mammals generally swim with the current’;

Bypreposition

after a passive verb

‘damage caused by fire’; ‘the door was opened by my cousin Annie’;

Withpreposition

indicating separation or removal from something

‘to part with one's dearest possessions’; ‘their jobs could be dispensed with’;

Bypreposition

after a noun denoting an action

‘years of hard fund-raising work by local people’; ‘a clear decision by the electorate’;

Bypreposition

identifying the author of a text, idea, or work of art

‘a book by Ernest Hemingway’;

Bypreposition

indicating the means of achieving something

‘they substantiate their opinions by the use of precise textual reference’; ‘they plan to provide further working capital by means of borrowing’; ‘malaria can be controlled by attacking the parasite’;

Bypreposition

indicating a term to which an interpretation is to be assigned

‘what is meant by ‘fair’?’;

Bypreposition

indicating a name according to which a person is known

‘she mostly calls me by my last name’;

Bypreposition

indicating the means of transport selected for a journey

‘the cost of travelling by bus’; ‘I travelled to Folkestone by rail’;

Bypreposition

indicating the other parent of someone's child or children

‘Richard is his son by his third wife’;

Bypreposition

indicating the sire of a pedigree animal, especially a horse

‘a black filly by Goldfuerst’;

Bypreposition

(followed by a noun without a determiner) in various phrases indicating how something happens

‘I heard by chance that she has married again’; ‘she ate by candlelight’; ‘Anderson, by contrast, rejects this view’;

Bypreposition

indicating the amount or size of a margin

‘the raising of VAT by 2.5%’; ‘the shot missed her by miles’;

Bypreposition

indicating a quantity or amount

‘billing is by the minute’; ‘the drunken yobbos who turned up by the cartload’;

Bypreposition

in phrases indicating something happening repeatedly or progressively, typically with repetition of a unit of time

‘colours changing minute by minute’; ‘the risk becomes worse by the day’;

Bypreposition

identifying a parameter

‘a breakdown of employment figures by age and occupation’;

Bypreposition

expressing multiplication, especially in dimensions

‘she multiplied it by 89’; ‘a map measuring 400 by 600 mm’;

Bypreposition

indicating a deadline or the end of a particular time period

‘by now Kelly needed extensive physiotherapy’; ‘I've got to do this report by Monday’;

Bypreposition

indicating location of a physical object beside a place or object

‘remains were discovered by the roadside’; ‘the pram was by the dresser’;

Bypreposition

past and beyond

‘I drove by our house’;

Bypreposition

indicating the period in which something happens

‘this animal always hunts by night’;

Bypreposition

concerning; according to

‘she had done her duty by him’; ‘anything you do is all right by me’;

Bypreposition

used in mild oaths

‘it was the least he could do, by God’; ‘I swear by Almighty God’;

Byadverb

so as to go past

‘a car flashed by on the other side of the road’; ‘he let only a moment go by’;

Bynoun

variant spelling of bye

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